Korean antarctic expedition postcard and envelope
Korea / 1985 / Paper
The word “astrolabe” can be traced back to the Greek words for “star” (ἄστρον or astron) and “take” (λαβ- or lambanein), thus meaning “star-taker.” Ancient Greek astrologers used it in locating the positions of the sun and stars, and it was also used for determining local time and latitude and for surveying. When astrolabes were first inented, their primary use was to survey the altitude of the sun, moon, and stars above the horizon, but as astronomy and mathematics evolved, they provided even more information. Astrolabes are now thought to have 300–400 functions. An astrolabe is a very delicate and sensitive instrument, so when it is used at sea, even the slightest movement of a boat can make a huge impact on observations based on the astrolabe. For that reason, special mariner’s astrolabes were produced from the 15th century for navigational use. Mariner’s astrolabes were made of metal to increase their weight and featured large openings to minimize the effect of wind or the shi’s movements when held in the hand. This astrolabe bears the engraved name of SEBASTIAO DE GOES, a famous Portuguese manufacturer. On this basis, this astrolabe can be assumed to date from the 16th century. The quadrant divisions ae engraved with 0°, -90°, and 5°, and the alidade is secured with a wingnut.
Portugal / 16th century / metal
This Dutch astrolabe is engraved with “1643,” presumed to be the year it was made.
the Netherlands / 1643 / metal
Document of Marine Office (Haegwan)
Republic of Korea / 1662 / Paper
This was used to transpot salt from a salt pond to a salt storehouse.
Republic of Korea / Modern Contemporary / bamboo and such
Voyage de Decouvertes Dans La Partie Septentrionale de L'Ocean
British naval officer William Robert Broughton (1762–1821) was the commander of the H.M.S. Providence (400 tons).When the Providence was shipwrecked near Ryukyu, he sailed the coast of the East Sea on an 87-ton schooner, arriving at Busan. After bringing the schooner to anchor at Busan Dongnae Yongdangpo, he created a nautical chart during his one-week stay. Later in England, he published the chart along with an account of his exploration.
England / 1807 / Paper
Military Register of Jeolla-do Province
A military register of Jeolla-do Province recording the personal details of individuals subject to military requisition. The personal details include name, affiliations, place ofesidence, age, face, beard, height, and scars, respectively. Faces were further categorized according to fie diffeent classificationsfor the presence and severity of pockmarks, often left as the vestiges of diseases like smallpox. The egister also lists the armored warships (Geobukseon 二龜船, 龜船, 羅州一龜船), runners (najang), and flag bearers stationed in the coastal regions of Jeolla-do Province, such as Muan, Mokpo, Yeonggwang, Yongam, and Garipo. At the end of the register is the signature of “Commander Kim” (節度使 金).
Republic of Korea / 1855 / paper
A small atlas of 16 leaves (32 pages both front and back) comprising eight maps of the provinces (do) and accompanying regional information.The front sides of the leaves show Gyeongsang, Hwanghae, Pyongan, and Hamgyong, while the verso sides show Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, Jeolla, and Gangwon. Each Province has its own entries for records. The very first part has maps indicating the locations and names of mountains, place names of each region, and rivers. The next section shows stations (yeok 驛), garrisons (jin 鎭), forts (bo 堡), and fortresses (sanseong 山城). Under stations are post stations (yeokcham 驛站), with place names inscribed below. Next is the number of inhabitants’ dwellings, fields, number of vessels belonging to naval bases (suyeong), and number of commoners providing tax support (boin 保人). The document also records the histories or the origins of important regions and distances from Seoul, among other details.
Republic of Korea / The end of the Joseon / paper
Fish Oil Factory in Cheongjin Port Photograph Postcard
Based on the heavy concentration of sardines in the eastern sea, sardine (jeongeori) fishing became a full-fledged industy from the mid-1920s. Sardine fishin became a leading Korean fishery activity with such effective development of fishery techniques and ntroduction of new techniques that in 1937, the sardine haul reached nearly 1.4 million tons. This was a world record for the haul of a single fish species in a single fishing ground, and the fishery developed into a higher value-added industry, called the sardine “industry.” Notably, the fish oil obtained during sadine processing supplied the greatest part of war industry oil, including fuel oil for ships, so the focus shifted to production of fish oil. One sardine fish oil pocessing plant in the port of Cheongin handled from 5,000–6,000 to as much as 10,000 tons or more of fish oil ondaily basis. As resources dwindled after the 1940s, the industry declined, but the sardine industry marked the beginning of modern fisheries, incorporating the latest fishing methods utilizing modern scientific technology.
Republic of Korea / 1930~1940 / paper